Quick Intro to Dockerfile
For a while I was using VirtualBox/Vagrant for development projects. More recently I’ve moved to using Docker. I use Linux (lubuntu) on my dev computer anyways, so it was an easy transition and the resource consumption is significantly lower. I haven’t tried Docker in a Windows or Mac environment, so I can’t speak to the performance or resource consumption on those platforms.
Docker is actually pretty straightforward to use. The one thing that I got hung up on was the Dockerfile. It’s not very complex, but you do need to know what you’re doing.
I’m working on a Meteor project right now, so I wanted to create a new Dockerfile to make future projects quick to spin up. I’ll walk through each part of the Dockerfile and explain what’s going on. Bolded lines are the commands in the Dockerfile and the following text explains what the command is doing.
For this project I want to use the latest ubuntu base image. If I wanted to use a specific version, like 14.04, I would use the command “FROM ubuntu:14.04”. You can use any image from Docker Hub as your base.
MAINTAINER Bill Broughton <email redacted>
The MAINTAINER command isn’t strictly necessary, but if you are going to publish your image to Docker Hub it should be in your file. This just identifies who is maintaining the image.
RUN <shell command>
RUN allows you to execute shell commands during the image creation. This is most frequently used for ‘apt-get install’ commands, but it can be used for other shell commands also.
My Dockerfile has three RUN commands.
# Fix MongoDB locale issue RUN locale-gen en_US.UTF-8 # Update apt and install git, curl, python, and latest node RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y \ git \ curl \ python \ && (curl https://deb.nodesource.com/setup | sh) \ && apt-get install -y nodejs \ && apt-get clean \ && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/* # Install Meteor RUN curl https://install.meteor.com/ |sh
The first RUN command sets the locale in Ubuntu. This is necessary because MongoDB won’t work without having a locale set. The next RUN command installs git, curl, python, and nodejs. It then clears the apt-cache and deletes the contents of the apt lists directory. These steps are part of Docker’s best practices and helps to keep image size down. Finally, the last RUN command installs Meteor per the directions on their site.
The default port that Meteor runs on in development is 3000, this command lets the container know to watch for connections to port 3000.
VOLUME exposes directories to the container. Generally, you will want to expose any directories that are intended to be user-serviceable.
This sets the working directory to the volume that was exposed in the previous command. When you enter the interactive shell of the container, you will be located in /app.
The CMD command can be used to execute shell scripts in the container. In a production application, this would be used to start the application with the container. In a development environment, users of the image probably want to go to the interactive shell. When the container is started with the ‘-it’ flag, they will be taken to an interactive shell.
How to use it
To build an image from the Dockerfile, run the following command from the directory containing the Dockerfile:
docker build -t <image-name> .
The ‘-t’ flag allows you to give the image an easy to remember name rather than a hash. The period at the end references the current working directory. You can also build an image not in your current working directory by specifying a full path instead.
To start the image in a new container, link the /app directory in the container to your current working directory on your host, and start an interactive shell, use this:
docker run -it --name <container-name> -v "$(pwd)":/app <image-name>